- Mutations that affect a single gene
- POINT MUTATION: one nucleotide is substituted for another DNA. May be fixed by DNA Polymerase
- FRAMESHIFT MUTATION: insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a DNA sequence, SHIFTS the entire sequence
- Affects the entire chromosome (many genes)
- GENE DUPLICATION: caused by exchange of unequal segments during crossing over. One chromosome has 2 copies of some genes and the other has no copies.
- TRANSLOCATION: movement of piece of 1 chromosome to a non-homologous chromosome.
- Chromosome mutations typically have a large effect on an organism
- Point mutatiosn may result in premature STOP codons or amino acids with very different properties from the correct amino acid
- Some mutations have no apparent effect.
- A point mmutation may not change the amino acid coded for.
- Even if a change occurs, it may be in the non-coding region that has no apparent effect.
- Agents that can change DNA.